Document Type : Research Paper
Department of Transportation Planning & Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
One of the main topics with increasing interest in freight transport and logistics is developing efficient and sustainable supply chain strategies that best cover customer demands and expectations as well as identify considerable cost savings and emission reductions. This study focuses on the evaluation of the potential of a logistics centre for consolidating and delivering goods at urban level, based on economic, social and environmental aspects, by performing both GIS simulation and SWOT analysis, while considering key criteria of transport management, infrastructure and fleet attributes as well as logistics and market features in the Attica region of Greece. The case refers to the largest Logistics Centre of Greece, located at Thriasio, offering door-to door services to the main industrial areas of the region. The approach followed, consists of two core elements: a) a specific model of a last-mile delivery network in GIS environment, towards simulating and solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) as well as b) a strategic assessment of the foreseen logistics activities through the SWOT business tool. For a transport operator with 5 vehicles, an operational distance-related cost of €1.8-1.9 per pallet was estimated. Results also show the lower environmental impact of larger vehicles due to transport pooling.
- Behrends, S. (2016). Recent developments in urban logistics research–a review of the proceedings of the international conference on city logistics 2009–2013. Transportation research procedia, 12, 278-287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2016.02.065
- Rodrigue, J. P. (2020). The geography of transport systems - 5th edition. Routledge, New York.
- Russo, F., & Comi, A. (2020). Investigating the effects of city logistics measures on the economy of the city. Sustainability, 12(4), 1439. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041439
- Chatziioannou, I., Alvarez-Icaza, L., Bakogiannis, E., Kyriakidis, C., & Chias-Becerril, L. (2020). A structural analysis for the categorization of the negative externalities of transport and the hierarchical organization of sustainable mobility’s strategies. Sustainability, 12(15), 6011. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156011
- Cardenas, I., Borbon-Galvez, Y., Verlinden, T., Van de Voorde, E., Vanelslander, T., & Dewulf, W. (2017). City logistics, urban goods distribution and last mile delivery and collection. Competition and regulation in network industries, 18(1-2), 22-43.
- Bosona, T. (2020). Urban freight last mile logistics—challenges and opportunities to improve sustainability: a literature review. Sustainability, 12(21), 8769. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12218769
- Allen, J., Browne, M., Woodburn, A., & Leonardi, J. (2014, January). A review of urban consolidation centres in the supply chain based on a case study approach. In Supply chain forum: an international journal, 15(4), 100-112. Taylor & Francis. https://doi.org/10.1080/16258312.2014.11517361
- Allen, J., Browne, M., Woodburn, A., & Leonardi, J. (2012). The role of urban consolidation centres in sustainable freight transport. Transport reviews, 32(4), 473-490. https://doi.org/10.1080/01441647.2012.688074
- Piecyk, M. I., & McKinnon, A. C. (2010). Forecasting the carbon footprint of road freight transport in 2020. International journal of production economics, 128(1), 31-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2009.08.027
- Kauf, S. (2016). City logistics–a strategic element of sustainable urban development. Transportation research procedia, 16, 158-164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2016.11.016
- Mrabti, N., Hamani, N., & Delahoche, L. (2020). The pooling of sustainable freight transport. Journal of the operational research society, 27(10), 2180-2198. https://doi.org/10.1080/01605682.2020.1772022
- Muncrief, R., & Sharpe, B. (2015). Overview of the heavy-duty vehicle market and CO2 emissions in the European Union. Washington, DC: the international council on clean transportation.
- Polacek, M., Hartl, R. F., Doerner, K., & Reimann, M. (2004). A variable neighborhood search for the multi depot vehicle routing problem with time windows. Journal of heuristics, 10(6), 613-627. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10732-005-5432-5
- Bopage, G., Nanayakkara, J., & Vidanagamachchi, K. (2019). A strategic model to improve the last mile delivery performance in e-commerce parcel delivery. Proceedings of the international conference on industrial engineering and operations management. Bangkok, Thailand.
- Toth, P., & Vigo, D. (Eds.). (2014). Vehicle routing: problems, methods, and applications. Society for industrial and applied mathematics.
- Caric, T. and Gold, H. (Eds.). (2008). The vehicle routing problem. In-The.
- Dantzig, G. B., & Ramser, J. H. (1959). The truck dispatching problem. Management science, 6(1), 80-91. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.6.1.80
- Clarke, G., & Wright, J. W. (1964). Scheduling of vehicles from a central depot to a number of delivery points. Operations research, 12(4), 568-581. https://doi.org/10.1287/opre.12.4.568
- Dulac, G., Ferland, J. A., & Forgues, P. A. (1980). School bus routes generator in urban surroundings. Computers & operations research, 7(3), 199-213. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-0548(80)90006-4
- Chapleau, L., Ferland, J. A., & Rousseau, J. M. (1985). Clustering for routing in densely populated areas. European journal of operational research, 20(1), 48-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-2217(85)90283-8
- Hans, Z. N., & Souleyrette, R. R. (1995). GIS and network models: issues for three potential applications. Journal of advanced transportation, 29(3), 355-373. https://doi.org/10.1002/atr.5670290307
- Weigel, D., & Cao, B. (1997, October). Solving real-world routing problems by using GIS and optimization techniques. Paper presented at the INFORMS meeting, Dallas.
- Thill, J. C. (2000). Geographic information systems for transportation in perspective. Transportation research part c: emerging technologies, 8(1-6), 3-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0968-090X(00)00029-2
- Braekers, K., Ramaekers, K., & Van Nieuwenhuyse, I. (2016). The vehicle routing problem: state of the art classification and review. Computers & industrial engineering, 99, 300-313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cie.2015.12.007
- Wu, J., & Haasis, H. D. (2013). Converting knowledge into sustainability performance of freight villages. Logistics research, 6(2), 63-88. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12159-013-0098-0
- EUROPLATFORMS EEIG (2004). Logistics centres – directions for use. https://unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/main/eatl/docs/EN-REV-What_is_a_Freight_VillageFinalcorretto.pdf
- Baydar, A. M., Süral, H., & Çelik, M. (2017). Freight villages: a literature review from the sustainability and societal equity perspective. Journal of cleaner production, 167, 1208-1221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.07.224
- Greece Investor Guide. (2020). Thriasio makes mark on logistics map. Retrieved December 5, 2020, from https://www.greeceinvestorguide.com/insights/news/thriasio-makes-mark-on-logistics-map/
- Keenan, P. (2008). Modelling vehicle routing in GIS. Operational research, 8(3), 201-218. DOI: 1007/s12351-008-0021-7
- Terrados, J., Almonacid, G., & Hontoria, L. (2007). Regional energy planning through SWOT analysis and strategic planning tools: impact on renewables development. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 11(6), 1275-1287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2005.08.003
- ArcGIS – ESRI. (2020). Vehicle routing problem analysis. Retrieved December 5, 2020, from https://desktop.arcgis.com/en/arcmap/latest/extensions/network-analyst/vehicle-routing-problem.htm
- Kapoutsi, R., & Kakkavas, Ch. (2012). Real estate & logistics: recent trends & perspectives in greece and europe”, athens economics Ltd. Paper presented at the 2ndolympus international conference on supply chains. Katerini, Greece.
- Zhang, X., Miller-Hooks, E., & Denny, K. (2015). Assessing the role of network topology in transportation network resilience. Journal of transport geography, 46, 35-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2015.05.006
- ACEA – European Automobile Manufacturers Association. (2019). Vehicles in use Europe. Retrieved from https://www.acea.auto/publication/report-vehicles-in-use-europe-2022/#:~:
- OCDE, O. (2019). ITF Transport Outlook 2015. OECD Publishing.
- TROXOI & TIR (2019). Logistics in Greece today. TROXOI & TIR. Retrieved from https://troxoikaitir.gr/article/369/ereyna-ta-logistics-stin-ellada-simera
- European Pallet Association. (2020). EPAL EURO PALLET (EPAL 1). Retrieved December 5, 2020, from https://www.epal-pallets.org/eu-en/load-carriers/epal-euro-pallet
- (n.d.). Hellenic statistical authority. Retrieved December 5, 2020, from https://www.statistics.gr/en/statistics/ind
- Gao, T., Erokhin, V., & Arskiy, A. (2019). Dynamic optimization of fuel and logistics costs as a tool in pursuing economic sustainability of a farm. Sustainability, 11(19), 5463. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195463
- (2020). Average prices of diesel fuel in Greece from 2000 to 2020. Retrieved December 5, 2020, from https://www.statista.com/statistics/603711/diesel-fuel-prices-greece/
- Persyn, D., Diaz-Lanchas, J., & Barbero, J. (2019). Estimating road transport costs between EU regions(No. 04/2019). JRC working papers on territorial modelling and analysis.
- American Transportation Research Institute. (2020). An analysis of the operational costs of trucking. Retrieved from https://truckingresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/ATRI-Operational-Costs-of-Trucking-2020.pdf
- UK. (2020). Research and analysis greenhouse gas reporting: conversion factors 2019. Retrieved December 5, 2020 from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/greenhouse-gas-reporting-conversion-factors-2019
- Pienaar, W. J. (2013). Opportunities for the achievement of economies of scale in freight transport. Corporate ownership & control, 11(1), 161-174.