Over the past decade, solving complex optimization problems with metaheuristic algorithms has attracted many experts and researchers.There are exact methods and approximate methods to solve optimization problems. Nature has always been a model for humans to draw the best mechanisms and the best engineering out of it and use it to solve their problems. The concept of optimization is evident in several natural processes, such as the evolution of species, the behavior of social groups, the immune system, and the search strategies of various animal populations. For this purpose, the use of nature-inspired optimization algorithms is increasingly being developed to solve various scientific and engineering problems due to their simplicity and flexibility. Anything in a particular situation can solve a significant problem for human society. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the metaheuristic algorithms and classifications in this field and offers a novel classification based on the features of these algorithms.