Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Health, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran



In recent years, the use of intelligent methods for automatic detection of sleep stages in medical applications to increase diagnostic accuracy and reduce the workload of physicians in analyzing sleep data by visual inspection is one of the important issues. The most important step for the automatic classification of sleep stages is the extraction of useful features. In this paper, an EEG-based algorithm for automatic detection of sleep stages is presented using features extracted from the recurrence plot and artificial neural network. Due to the non-stationary of the EEG signal, the recurrence plot was used in this paper for nonlinear analysis and extraction of signal features. Various extracted features have different numerical ranges. Normalization was performed to prevent the undesirable effects of large values of data. As all normalized features could not correctly classify different stages of sleep, effective features were selected. The results of this paper show the selected features and the multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network able to achieve the values of 98.54 ± 1.88%, 99.03 ± 1.43%, and 98.32 ± 2.11%, respectively, for specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy between the two types of sleep, i.e., Non-Rapid Eye Movement (Non-REM) and Rapid Eye Movement (REM). Also, the results show that the selection of Pz-Oz channel compared to Fpz-Cz channel leads us to a higher percentage for the separation of stages I-IV, awake, while the separation of REM stage using Fpz-Cz channel is better. The results show that the proposed method has a higher success rate in classifying sleep stages than previous studies. The proposed method could well identify and distinguish all stages of sleep at an acceptable level. In addition to saving time, automatic analysis of sleep stages can help better and more accurate diagnosis and reduce physicians' workload in analyzing sleep data through visual inspection.


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