Finite Element Coding of Functionally Graded Beams under Various Boundary and Loading Conditions

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Jordan, Amman-11942, Jordan.

Abstract

Detailed formulation and coding of exact finite element is carried out to study the static behavior of a layered beam structure. The beam element is modelled based on the first-order shear deformation theory and it is assumed to be composed of three layers whereas the middle layer is made of functionally graded material (FGM), i.e. with variable elastic properties in the thickness direction. The shape of the FGM mechanical properties variation in the thickness direction takes the form of exponential or power-law. The governing equations and boundary conditions are derived by applying the virtual work principle. Variations of displacements along the beam and stresses across the depth due to mechanical loadings are investigated. Comparative examples are carried out to highlight the static behavior difference between FGM layered beams and pure metal-ceramic beams.

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