Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

2 Department of Civil Engineering, Akwa Ibom State University, Ikot Akpaden, Mkpat Enin, Nigeria.

3 Department of Agricultural Engineering, Akwa Ibom State University, Ikot Akpaden, Mkpat Enin, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.


The R3 (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) system of waste management specified by Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) waste management framework is the pathway to sustainable environment. This system which is practiced in advanced countries is given little or no preference in Nigeria where open waste dumping is mostly practiced. Questionnaire based survey was employed to determine the awareness of the effects of open waste dumping by individuals. A physical survey was carried out to assess the risks posed by open waste dumping on the physical environment and health of individuals. Findings from the questionnaire-based survey indicated that many individuals are aware of the risks posed by open waste dumping system but have little or no knowledge of the R3 waste management standard for proper waste management. The physical survey pointed out that open waste dumping leads to infrastructural dilapidation and environmental degradation from drainage blockage and flooding. The findings also revealed that open waste dumping is responsible for outbreak of diseases such as Cholera, Diarrhoea, Malaria, Tetanus, Lassa fever, Typhoid and Yellow fever, Hookworm, and other parasite infestation as well as the promotion of fecal contamination of the hands, food and water that may result in fecal-oral transmission diseases. Hence, this method of waste management is responsible for water pollution, land pollution and the emission of obnoxious odour and also aid climate change and global warming through the release of Green House Gases (GHGs). From the risk evaluation carried out, simple and effective processes and technologies must be employed to aid the R3 practice for domestic recycling of specific waste.


Main Subjects

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