Construction trades are considered to be at high risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) due to their nature. Previous reviews have addressed various risk factors for developing WRMSDs among construction workers. In contrast, the results appear insufficient because proper evidence was not reported. Therefore, the purpose of this current review was to summarize the occurrence rates of WRMSDs and quantify the relationships between various risk factors and WRMSDs among construction workers. Literature searches were conducted through the following electronic databases from 2000 to 2022: Science Direct, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Research Gate, and Medline. Selected articles were classified as strong, moderate, limited, and no effect, respectively, based on their association with WRMSDs. From the selected 66 articles, the highest occurrence rates of WRMSDs were found in construction workers (ranging from 33% to 89%). There were various significant risk factors for developing WRMSDs in construction workers, including age, working experiences, awkward working postures, vibration, repetitive body movement, manual material handling, biomechanical stress, and physical fatigue. Although most of the study was conducted through a cross-sectional survey to find out the relationships between risk factors and WRMSDs in construction workers. To determine the insights on risk factors and WRMSDs among construction workers, experimental, longitudinal, and real-time task-based studies can be conducted. This study may be helpful to improve awareness about risk factors for developing WRMSDs among construction workers.