Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, Jashore University of Science and Technology, Jashore, Bangladesh.


The Ready-Made Garment (RMG) sector, the highest earning foreign currency segment, has had a great influence on GDP (gross domestic product) since 1980. With new technology adaption as well as cheap labor force, this sector has placed the second position of exporting after China. To capture the market position, the management has to give more attention on maintaining Safety, Health, and Environment (SHE) guideline properly. This paper proposes a structured framework for occupational risk assessment by means of quantitative way and also provided remedies of those risks in garments industry in the context of Bangladesh. Here, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is applied for measuring the severity of safety, healthy, and environmental risk factors and QFD to prioritize the possible solutions. Through the literature review and extracting opinions from experts, a total of four evaluation criteria and sixteen risk factors under SHE categories are recognized and examined via AHP approach to measure their importance. The results demonstrate that ‘Fire’ ‘Contagious diseases’, and ‘Noise’ take high priority in safety, health, and environment related risk factors. The findings of this paper may help the garment industry effectively through the proper identification of the most influential risk factors and generating solutions to mitigate this issue.


[1]     Theodore, N., Gutelius, B., & Burnham, L. (2019). Workplace health and safety hazards faced by informally employed domestic workers in the United States. Workplace health & safety, 67(1), 9-17.
[2]     Karmaker, C. L., & Saha, M. (2016). A case study on constraints affecting the productivity of readymade garment (RMG) industry in Bangladesh. International journal of managing value and supply chains (IJMVSC), 7(3), 69-78.
[3]     Jaffar, N., Abdul-Tharim, A. H., Mohd-Kamar, I. F., & Lop, N. S. (2011). A literature review of ergonomics risk factors in construction industry. Procedia engineering, 20, 89-97.
[4]     Polat, O., & Kalayci, C. B. (2016, May). Ergonomic risk assessment of workers in garment industry. Eight international conference on textile science & economy VIII, Zranjanin, Sarbia (pp. 16-21).
[5]     Padula, R. S., Comper, M. L. C., Sparer, E. H., & Dennerlein, J. T. (2017). Job rotation designed to prevent musculoskeletal disorders and control risk in manufacturing industries: A systematic review. Applied ergonomics, 58, 386-397.
[6]     Kaium, A., Hasan, S., Ahmed, S., Mehmood, S., Kristensen, A., & Ahsan, D. (2018, October). Occupational health and safety: risk assessment and cost and benefit analysis (CBA) of remediation program of ready-made garment (RMG) industry. Safety and reliability-safe societies in a changing world: proceedings of European safety and reliability conference (ESREL).
[7]     Mehta, R. (2012). Major health risk factors prevailing in garment manufacturing units of Jaipur. Journal of ergonomics, 2(2), 1-3.
[8]     Padmini, D., & Venmathi, A. (2012). Unsafe work environment in garment industries, Tirupur, India. Journal of environmental research and development, 7, 569-75.
[9]     Kebede Deyyas, W., & Tafese, A. (2014). Environmental and organizational factors associated with elbow/forearm and hand/wrist disorder among sewing machine operators of garment industry in Ethiopia. Journal of environmental and public health.
[10] Nuwayhid, I. A. (2004). Occupational health research in developing countries: a partner for social justice. American journal of public health, 94(11), 1916-1921.
[11] Koskela, M. (2014). Occupational health and safety in corporate social responsibility reports. Safety science, 68, 294-308.
[12] Floriano, L. R. P., & Pacheco, J. A. L. (2018). Risk perception and antecedents of safe behaviour in workers at a garment factory in Mexico. Preventing health and environmental risks in Latin America (pp. 237-250). Springer, Cham.
[13] Ahmed, F. (2017, September). Ergonomic to design safe and comfort work stations for garment workers: bangladesh perspective. Welcome message from conference chairs (p. 95).
[14] Lindholm, H., Egels-Zandén, N., & Rudén, C. (2016). Do code of conduct audits improve chemical safety in garment factories? Lessons on corporate social responsibility in the supply chain from Fair Wear Foundation. International journal of occupational and environmental health, 22(4), 283-291.
[15] Wong, I. S., Dawson, D., & Van Dongen, H. P. (2019). International consensus statements on non-standard working time arrangements and occupational health and safety. Industrial health, 57(2), 135-138.
[16] Theodore, N., Gutelius, B., & Burnham, L. (2019). Workplace health and safety hazards faced by informally employed domestic workers in the United States. Workplace health & safety, 67(1), 9-17.
[17] Bailey, T., & Dollard, M. (2019). Mental health at work and the corporate climate: implications for worker health and productivity. Retrieved from
[18] Gul, M. (2018). A review of occupational health and safety risk assessment approaches based on multi-criteria decision-making methods and their fuzzy versions. Human and ecological risk assessment: an international journal, 24(7), 1723-1760.
[19] Bakhtavar, E., & Yousefi, S. (2018). Assessment of workplace accident risks in underground collieries by integrating a multi-goal cause-and-effect analysis method with MCDM sensitivity analysis. Stochastic environmental research and risk assessment, 32(12), 3317-3332.
[20] Velasquez, M., & Hester, P. T. (2013). An analysis of multi-criteria decision making methods. International journal of operations research, 10(2), 56-66.
[21] Lang, L., & Fu-Bao, Z. (2010). A comprehensive hazard evaluation system for spontaneous combustion of coal in underground mining. International journal of coal geology, 82(1-2), 27-36.
[22] Ozfırat, P. M., (2014). A new risk analysis methodology integrating fuzzy prioritization method and failure modes and effects analysis. Journal of the faculty of engineering and architecture of Gazi University, 29(4), 755-768. (In Turkish)
[23] Seker, S., & Zavadskas, E. (2017). Application of fuzzy DEMATEL method for analyzing occupational risks on construction sites. Sustainability, 9(11), 2083.
[24] Khandan, M., Koohpaei, A. R., Nili, M., & Farjami, Y. (2017). Occupational musculoskeletal disorders management using Fuzzy TOPSIS assessment of repetitive tasks (ART). Work, 56(2), 267-276.
[25] Ramesh, R., Prabu, M., Magibalan, S., & Senthilkumar, P. (2017). Hazard identification and risk assessment in automotive industry. International journal of ChemTech research, 10(4), 352-358.
[26] Stefanović, V., Urošević, S., Mladenović-Ranisavljević, I., & Stojilković, P. (2019). Multi-criteria ranking of workplaces from the aspect of risk assessment in the production processes in which women are employed. Safety science, 116, 116-126.
[27] Mohandes, S. R., & Zhang, X. (2019). Towards the development of a comprehensive hybrid fuzzy-based occupational risk assessment model for construction workers. Safety science, 115, 294-309.
[28] Okoli, C., & Pawlowski, S. D. (2004). The Delphi method as a research tool: An example, design considerations and applications. Information & management, 42(1), 15–29.
[29] Saaty, T. L. (1980). The analytic hierarchy process. McGraw HillIne.
[30] Podvezko, V. (2009). Application of AHP technique. Journal of Business Economics and Management, (2), 181-189.
[31] Rao, M. S., & Pawar, P. J. (2018). Application of AHP for process parameter selection and consistency verification in secondary steel manufacturing. Materials today: proceedings, 5(13), 27166-27170.
[32] Giner-Santonja, G., Calvo, V. V., & Lepe, G. R. (2019). Application of AHP and corrective factors for the determination of best available techniques and emission limit values at installation level: A case study in four cement installations. Science of the total environment, 660, 834-840.
[33] Fertat, L., & Cherkaoui, A. (2018). Occupational health maturity by combined AHP and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation methods. 30th IBIMA conference, Madrid, Spain.
[34] Yucesan, M., & Kahraman, G. (2019). Risk evaluation and prevention in hydropower plant operations: a model based on pythagorean fuzzy AHP. Energy Policy, 126, 343-351.
[35] Saaty, T. L. (2005). Analytic hierarchy process. Encyclopedia of biostatistics.  John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
[36] Akao, Y. (1992). QFD: quality function deployment; wie die Japaner Kundenwünsche in Qualitätumsetzen. Verlag Moderne Industrie.
[37] Cristiano, J. J., Liker, J. K., & CC III, W. (2001). Key factors in the successful application of quality function deployment (QFD). IEEE transactions on engineering management, 48(1), 81-95.