Given the increased competition and turbulence in business environments, the proper management of human resources and employee growth is a significant challenge faced by organizations to achieve competitive advantage. The present study aimed to analyze the influential factors in human resource development (HRD) in state-owned enterprises (SOEs). This was an applied research in terms of objective and a mixed (qualitative-quantitative), exploratory study in terms of design. In the qualitative-quantitative section of the study, content analysis and descriptive-exploratory techniques were applied. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews and by using questionnaires in the qualitative and quantitative sections, respectively. The research population included human resource experts, managers, and experts in the field of human resource planning and SOE management. In total, 22 individuals were selected via purposeful sampling. In the qualitative section, data analysis was carried out using open, axial, and selective coding for the classification of the identified factors into four categories of organizational, occupational, behavioral, and empowerment factors. In addition, screening was performed using the Fuzzy Delphi method, and the correlations between the identified factors and sub-factors were determined using the Fuzzy DEMATEL method. According to the results, empowerment factors were the most significant determinants of HRD, which could be improved by considering the associated influential factors and prioritization of organizational factors. On the other hand, the factor weighting findings based on the fuzzy analytic network process indicated that among the identified factors and sub-factors of knowledge management, empowerment factors had the most significant impact on HRD.